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KODAK T-MAX 100 and 400 Professional Films (part 2)

ROTARY-TUBE PROCESSING

Rotary-Tube Processing--Rolls and Sheets

Follow the agitation recommendations for your processor. Use T-MAX Developer for roll films only.

Rotary-Tube Processing--Rolls
KODAK
Developer or
Developer and
Replenisher
KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film
Development Time in Minutes Development Time in Minutes
68°F
(20°C)
70°F
(21°C)
72°F
(22°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
70°F
(21°C)
72°F
(22°C)
75°F
(24°C)
T-MAX (1:4)[1] 6 1/2 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 6 1/2 6 1/2 6 5 1/2
T-MAX (1:7)[2] -- -- -- 10 -- -- -- 10
T-MAX (1:9)[2] -- -- -- 11 1/2 -- -- -- 11
T-MAX (1:15)[2] -- -- -- 13 -- -- -- 14
T-MAX RS[1] 7 6 1/2 6 5 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 1/2
T-MAX RS (1:7)[2] -- -- -- 8 1/2 -- -- -- 7 1/2
T-MAX RS (1:9)[2] -- -- -- 10 -- -- -- 8 1/2
XTOL Size 135: 6 5 1/4 4 3/4 4 5 1/2 5 4 1/2 4
Size 120: 5 3/4 5 4 1/2 3 3/4 5 1/4 4 3/4 4 1/4 3/4
XTOL (1:1)[2] Size 135: 8 3/4 8 7 1/4 6 1/4 7 3/4 7 6 1/2 5 1/2
Size 120: 7 3/4 7 1/2 7 1/4 6 3/4 7 6 1/2 6 5 1/4
D-76 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 7 6 1/2 6 5 1/2
HC-110 (Dil B) 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 5
[1]The recommended standard dilution is 1:4.
[2]We do not recommend using more dilute solutions of these developers than indicated in the table. Dilute developers require longer development times; they give slightly higher film speed and a slight increase in graininess.

Note: The development times in the tables are suggested starting points.

Rotary-Tube Processing--Sheets
KODAK
Developer or
Developer and
Replenisher
KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film
Development Time in Minutes Development Time in Minutes
68°F
(20°C)
70°F
(21°C)
72°F
(22°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
70°F
(21°C)
72°F
(22°C)
75°F
(24°C)
T-MAX RS[1] 7 6 1/2 6 5 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 1/2
T-MAX RS (1:7)[2] -- -- -- 8 1/2 -- -- -- 7 1/2
T-MAX RS (1:9)[2] -- -- -- 10 -- -- -- 8 1/2
XTOL 6 1/4 1/2 5 4 1/4 1/4 5 1/2 5 4
XTOL (1:1)[2] 7 3/4 7 1/2 7 1/4 6 3/4 8 1/4 7 1/4 6 3/4 5 3/4
D-76 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 7 6 1/2 6 5 1/2
HC-110 (Dil B) 6 1/2 6 5 1/2 4 1/2 6 5 1/2 5 5
[1]The recommended standard dilution is 1:4.
[2]We do not recommend using more dilute solutions of these developers than indicated in the table. Dilute developers require longer development times; they give slightly higher film speed and a slight increase in graininess.

Note: The development times in the tables are suggested starting points.

ROTARY-TUBE PROCESSING

Push Processing

Rotary-Tube Processors--Rolls and Sheets

Follow the agitation recommendations for your processor.

Push Processing--Rotary-Tube--Rolls
KODAK
Developer or
Developer and
Replenisher
KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film
Development Time in Minutes Development Time in Minutes
EI 200 EI 400 EI 800 EI 800 EI 1600 EI 3200
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
75°F
(24°C)
T-MAX 6 1/2 5 1/2 10 1/2 9 12 1/2 6 1/2 5 1/2 8 1/2 7 9 1/2
T-MAX RS 7 5 12 8 12 6 1/2 5 10 8 12
XTOL[1] Size 135: 7 4 1/2 8 5 1/2 6 1/2 6 1/2 4 1/2 7 1/2 5 5 3/4
Size 120: 6 3/4 4 1/4 8 1/4 5 6 6 1/4 4 1/4 7 1/4 5 5 3/4
D-76 1/2 5 9 7 NR 7 5 1/2 9 7 NR
HC-110 (Dil B) 6 1/2 4 1/2 11 8 NR 6 5 8 1/2 7 NR


Push Processing--Rotary-Tube--Sheets
KODAK
Developer or
Developer and
Replenisher
KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film
Development Time in Minutes Development Time in Minutes
EI 200 EI 400 EI 800 EI 800 EI 1600 EI 3200
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
68°F
(20°C)
75°F
(24°C)
75°F
(24°C)
T-MAX RS 7 5 12 8 12 6 1/2 5 1/2 10 8 12
XTOL[1] 7 1/4 5 8 1/4 5 3/4 6 3/4 7 4 1/2 8 5 1/4 6
D-76 6 1/2 5 9 7 NR 7 5 1/2 9 7 NR
HC-110 (Dil B) 6 1/2 4 1/2 11 8 NR 6 5 8 1/2 7 NR
[1]For instructions on push processing with 1:1 dilution of KODAK XTOL Developer in a rotary-tube processor, see KODAK XTOL Developer, KODAK Publication No. J-109.

NR = Not recommended
Note: The development times in the tables are suggested starting points.

FINAL STEPS IN TANK, TRAY, AND ROTARY-TUBE PROCESSING

Rinse at 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) with agitation in KODAK Indicator Stop Bath or running water for 30 seconds.

Fix at 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) for 3 to 5 minutes with vigorous agitation in KODAK Rapid Fixer. Be sure to agitate the film frequently during fixing.

Note: To keep fixing times as short as possible, we strongly recommend using KODAK Rapid Fixer. If you use another fixer, such as KODAK Fixer or KODAFIX Solution, fix for 5 to 10 minutes or twice the time it takes for the film to clear. You can check the film for clearing after 3 minutes in KODAK Rapid Fixer or 5 minutes in KODAK Fixer or KODAFIX Solution.

Important: Your fixer will be exhausted more rapidly with these films than with other films. If your negatives show a magenta (pink) stain after fixing, your fixer may be near exhaustion, or you may not have used a long enough time. If the stain is slight, it will not affect image stability, negative contrast, or printing times. You can remove a slight pink stain with KODAK Hypo Clearing Agent. However, if the stain is pronounced and irregular over the film surface, refix the film in fresh fixer.

Wash for 20 to 30 minutes in running water at 65 to 75°F (18 to 24°C) with a flow rate that provides at least one complete change of water in 5 minutes. You can wash long rolls on the processing reel. To save time and conserve water, use KODAK Hypo Clearing Agent.

Dry film in a dust-free place. To minimize drying marks, treat the film with KODAK PHOTO-FLO Solution after washing, or wipe the surface carefully with a KODAK Photo Chamois or a soft viscose sponge.

MACHINE PROCESSING

Roller-Transport Processors

KODAK VERSAMAT Film Processors

You can process these films in roller-transport processors, such as the KODAK VERSAMAT Film Processor, Model 5, 11, or 411, with KODAK DURAFLO RT Developer Starter, KODAK DURAFLO RT Developer Replenisher, and KODAK Rapid Fixer.

Processing Steps and Conditions for
KODAK VERSAMAT Film Processors
KODAK T-MAX 100 and 400 Professional Films
Step No. of Racks Path Length Temperature
Model 11 Models 5 and 411
Develop 2 8.5 ft (2.6 m) 4 ft (1.2 m) 80 ± 0.5°F
(26.5 ± 0.3°C
Fix 3 12 ft (3.8 m) 6 ft (1.9 m) 80°F
(26.5°C) nominal
Wash 2 8 ft (2.4 m) 4 ft (1.2 m) 70 to 75°F
(21 to 24°C)
Dry 8 ft (2.4 m) 4 ft (1.2 m) 105 to 140°F
(40.5 to 60°C)

The recommended machine speeds for processing KODAK T-MAX 100 and 400 Professional Films are as follows:

  KODAK VERSAMAT Film
    Processor, Models 5 and 411 2.6 ft (0.8 m)/minute
  KODAK VERSAMAT Film
    Processor, Model 11 5.5 ft (1.7 m)/minute

You may need to use higher dryer temperatures (135 to 140°F [57 to 60°C]) to dry several sheet films processed in succession. If you are processing only roll films, a lower temperature will be adequate.

Processing Conditions for Other Roller-Transport Processors

Adjust the machine speed so that the development time for normally exposed film is approximately 85 seconds. The development time is measured from the time the film enters the developer to the time it enters the fixer. Differences in machine design that affect agitation and crossover times from one tank to the next may require development-time adjustments.

Replenishment Rates

Developer--Because most film loads will consist of a variety of film types, use an average replenishment rate of 0.20 mL per square inch of film processed.

Fixer--Use 0.55 mL per square inch or 1.5 times your current fixer replenishment rate.

Important: T-MAX Films require a higher-than-normal fixer replenishment rate.

MACHINE PROCESSING

Large-Tank Rack-and-Tank Processors

To prepare a normal working solution or replenisher solution of KODAK T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher, dilute Part A with water to one-half the total volume (1/2 or 5 gallons, depending on the package size). While stirring, add Part B. Add water to bring the solution to the total volume (1 or 10 gallons, depending on the package size). Use this solution as the normal working solution or replenisher.

The development times for large-tank rack-and-tank processors are based on a machine speed that transfers the film every 2 minutes. The times given below are starting-point recommendations for T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher. Make tests to determine if results are acceptable for your needs.

Large-Tank Rack-and-Tank Processing with
KODAK T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher[1]
KODAK Film EI Development Time[2]
in Minutes at 72°F (22°C)
T-MAX 100 100/21°
200/24°
6 to 8
T-MAX 400 400/27°
800/30°
[1]For information on using KODAK XTOL Developer or KODAK Developer D-76, see KODAK XTOL Developer, KODAK Publication No. J-109, or KODAK Developer D-76, KODAK Publication No. J-78.
[2]Development time depends on agitation and tank size.

Replenishment Rates

Developer--Add 45 mL (1.5 ounces) of replenisher solution for each 135-36 or 120 roll or 8 x 10-inch sheet of film processed. Stir or recirculate the solution after each addition of replenisher solution.

Note: Do not use T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher to replenish T-MAX Developer. They are not designed to work together.

MACHINE PROCESSING

Push Processing

Roller-Transport Processors

To process pushed T-MAX 100 or 400 Film in a machine with DURAFLO RT Developer, use a normal machine process with the machine speed shown in the appropriate table below.

KODAK Film EI Machine Speed
KODAK VERSAMAT Film Processor, Models 5 and 411
T-MAX 100 200/24° 2.6 ft (0.8 m)/min
(normal)
T-MAX 400 800/30°
T-MAX 100 400/27° 2.2 ft (0.7 m)/min
T-MAX 400 1600/33°
KODAK VERSAMAT Film Processor, Model 11
T-MAX 100 200/24° 5.5 ft (1.7 m)/min
(normal)
T-MAX 400 800/30°
T-MAX 100 400/27° 4.5 ft (1.4 m)/min
T-MAX 400 1600/33°
Other Roller-Transport Processors
KODAK Film EI Development Time
at 80°F (26.5°C)
T-MAX 100 200/24° 85 seconds
(normal)
T-MAX 400 800/30°
T-MAX 100 400/27° 115 seconds
T-MAX 400 1600/33°

MACHINE PROCESSING

Push Processing

Large-Tank Rack-and-Tank Processors

The development times for these processors are based on a machine speed that transfers the film every 2 minutes. The times given below are starting-point recommendations for KODAK T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher. Make tests to determine if results are acceptable for your needs.

Push Processing--Large-Tank Rack-and-Tank Processing with KODAK T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher[1]
KODAK Film EI Development Time[2]
in Minutes
at 72°F (22°C)
T-MAX 100 200/24° 6 to 8
T-MAX 400 800/30°
T-MAX 100 400/27° 8 to 10
T-MAX 400 1600/33°
[1]For information on using KODAK XTOL Developer or KODAK Developer D-76, see KODAK XTOL Developer, KODAK Publication No. J-109, or KODAK Developer D-76, KODAK Publication No. J-78.
[2]Development time depends on agitation and tank size.

ADJUSTING FILM CONTRAST

If you want to increase or decrease film contrast from its normal value, you can adjust your standard development time. Your standard development time is the time that produces normal negative contrast based on your processing equipment and conditions, agitation, and processing technique.

The table below provides adjustment factors for several developers. The factors are based on a developer temperature of 75°F (24°C) for KODAK T-MAX Developers and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) for the others. The "standard" for each developer is indicated by 1.0. To increase or decrease film contrast or to use a different developer temperature, find the adjustment factor in the table. Multiply the standard development time by this factor to find the development time to use for a different contrast or developer temperature (or both).

For detailed processing instructions for KODAK XTOL Developer, see KODAK XTOL Developer, KODAK Publication No. J-109.

Note: These tables apply to negatives you will print with a diffusion enlarger. If you use a condenser enlarger, shift your selection one column to the left.

Development-Time Adjustment Factors
Temperature 20% Less Contrast Normal Contrast 20% More Contrast 40% More Contrast
KODAK T-MAX Developer and
T-MAX RS Developer and Replenisher
68°F (20°C) 0.9[1] 1.2 1.4 NR
72°F (22°C) 0.8[1] 1.1 1.3 1.7
75°F (24°C) 0.7[1] 1.0 1.2 1.5
KODAK Developer D-76 and MICRODOL-X Developer
65°F (18°C) 1.0[1] 1.2 1.4 1.6
68°F (20°C) 0.8[1] 1.0 1.2 1.4
70°F (21°C) 0.7[1] 0.9 1.1 1.3
72°F (22°C) 0.7[1] 0.8 1.0 1.2
75°F (24°C) 0.6[1] 0.7 0.9 1.0
KODAK HC-110 Developer (Dil B)
65°F (18°C) 0.7[1] 1.2 1.6 2.1
68°F (20°C) 0.6[1] 1.0 1.4 1.8
70°F (21°C) 0.6[1] 0.9 1.3 1.6
72°F (22°C) 0.5[1] 0.8 1.2 1.5
75°F (24°C) 0.4[1] 0.7 1.0 1.3
KODAK MICRODOL-X Developer (1:3)
75°F (24°C) 0.8[1] 1.0 1.3 1.5
[1]If you select one of these factors, increase camera exposure by one stop.

NR = Not recommended

RETOUCHING

You can retouch KODAK T-MAX Professional Film in 120 and sheet sizes by applying liquid dyes to the base or emulsion side. You can also use retouching pencil on the base side after applying KODAK Retouching Fluid.

IMAGE-STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTICS

The data in this section are based on development at 68°F (20°C) in KODAK Developer D-76.

KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film

Diffuse rms Granularity[1] 8
Resolving Power[2] TOC 1.6:1 63 lines/mm
TOC 1000:1 200 lines/mm

KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film

Diffuse rms Granularity[1] 10
Resolving Power[2] TOC 1.6:1 50 lines/mm
TOC 1000:1 125 lines/mm
[1]Read at a net diffuse density of 1.00, using a 48-micrometre aperture, 12X magnification.
[2]Determined according to a method similar to the one described in ISO 6328, Photography--Determination of ISO Resolving Power.

KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film / TMY

Spectral-Sensitivity Curves [1]

curve

Sensitivity = reciprocity of exposure (ergs/cm2) required to produce specified density

Modulation-Transfer Curve

curve

KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film / TMX

Spectral-Sensitivity Curves [1]

curve

Sensitivity=reciprocity of exposure (ergs/cm2) required to produce specified density

Modulation-Transfer Curve

curve

KODAK T-MAX 100 Professional Film / TMX

Characteristic Curves

curve

curve

curve

curve

KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film / TMY

Characteristic Curves

curve

curve

curve

curve


[1] The blue sensitivity of KODAK T-MAX 100 and 400 Professional Films is slightly less than that of other Kodak panchromatic black-and-white films. This enables the response of these films to be closer to the response of the human eye. Therefore, blues may be recorded as slightly darker tones with these films-a more natural rendition.

NOTICE: The sensitometric curves and data in this publication represent product tested under the conditions of exposure and processing specified. They are representative of production coatings, and therefore do not apply directly to a particular box or roll of photographic material. They do not represent standards or specifications that must be met by Eastman Kodak Company. The company reserves the right to change and improve product characteristics at any time.

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F-32  • September, 2000